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How A lot Did Provide Constraints Increase U.S. Inflation?

What elements are behind the latest inflation surge has been an enormous matter of debate amongst teachers and policymakers. We all know that pandemic-related provide constraints equivalent to labor shortages and provide chain bottlenecks have been key elements pushing inflation larger. These bottlenecks began with the pandemic (lockdowns, sick employees) and have been made worse by the push arising from elevated demand attributable to very expansionary fiscal and financial coverage. Our evaluation of the relative significance of supply-side versus demand-side elements finds 60 % of U.S. inflation over the 2019-21 interval was as a result of soar in demand for items whereas 40 % owed to supply-side points that magnified the affect of this larger demand.

The Debate

The U.S. has witnessed close to historic inflation for the reason that financial system started to re-open in 2021 following the COVID-19 lockdowns, as seen within the chart beneath. There have been a number of elements put forth to elucidate this inflation outburst and its persistence, which have been tough for policymakers to disentangle and have led to an energetic debate by main economists. Some analysts have targeted on the significance of provide chain constraints, whereas others level to demand as driving the soar in inflation. In the meantime, some economists argue {that a} mixture of provide and demand elements are essential to generate the inflation we’re at the moment witnessing. Our work belongs to the final camp.

Inflation has been very elevated

Chart: percent for y axis and monthly on x axis from dec 2019 to Jun 2022
Supply: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Notes: This chart plots the patron value index (CPI) for all city shoppers (all objects in U.S. metropolis common). The month-to-month sequence represents the share change from a yr in the past and isn’t seasonally adjusted. 

A Mannequin-Based mostly Method

Arriving at a definitive understanding of the relative significance of demand and provide drivers of inflation is tough with out offering some formal construction that may be taken to the info. Within the latest work referenced above, we take a step on this route by constructing on the work of others to quantify the consequences of the pandemic on inflation over the interval spanning each the collapse and restoration phases of the financial system. This framework not solely permits us to look at the cumulative affect of the pandemic from 2019:This autumn to 2021:This autumn, earlier than the Russia-Ukraine warfare’s “power/meals shock” on inflation, but in addition to decompose the contribution of demand- and supply-side elements underlying the noticed inflation.

The mannequin permits for the noticed restricted issue mobility. That’s, since everybody was uncovered to the identical health-related shock at a worldwide stage, it was tough for corporations to reallocate labor between sectors and/or swap and substitute suppliers within the quick run, resulting in shortages in labor and in different inputs. Moreover, apart from demand results being current on the combination stage—attributable to accommodative fiscal and financial coveragethe composition of demand additionally modified as shoppers substituted from providers to items. The mannequin incorporates these combination and sectoral demand results, which might additional amplify the affect of supply-side constraints on inflation as a result of ensuing supply-demand imbalances.

Taking the Mannequin to the Information

We calibrate a closed-economy model of the mannequin to match the noticed U.S. inflation over the 2019-21 interval, together with doing the same train for the euro space. The mannequin implies that inflation is a operate of combination demand shocks, adjustments in hours labored, and productiveness by sector. The adjustments in hours labored seize each demand and provide shocks, whereas adjustments in productiveness/know-how are sectoral provide shocks.

We assume that sector-level technological adjustments have been zero over the 2019-21 interval and use the noticed inflation fee together with sectoral hours labored to again out the implied combination demand shock. The computed combination demand shock captures a number of potential demand drivers, equivalent to adjustments in households’ preferences for consumption within the current vs. future in addition to expansionary results of fiscal and/or financial coverage.

Armed with the implied combination demand shock, the expansion charges of sectoral hours labored, and the noticed change within the composition of sectoral consumption (that’s, a rise in consumption within the items sector and a fall in consumption within the service sector), we then use the mannequin construction to decompose the relative significance of provide and demand shocks in driving inflation. Crucially, the mannequin construction permits us to elucidate why noticed employment might have been beneath its “regular” stage, and what sectoral dimensions of the info are essential explaining this consequence—for instance, a scarcity of employees or a scarcity of demand given adjustments in preferences and/or the mixture demand shift

U.S. Outcomes

The primary bar within the chart beneath presents our estimation of the U.S. CPI inflation fee over the 2019-21 interval, which was calculated to be 9.18 % from December 2019 to December 2021, annualized. The precise noticed inflation throughout this era is 8.47 %, so the model-calibrated fee may be very shut. The subsequent three bars decompose the drivers of inflation. Discover that the sum of those bars is 10.5 %, which is barely larger given the nonlinear interactions between sixty-six sectors. The mixture demand shock (“backed-out AD shock”) explains roughly 60 % of model-based inflation. The remaining 40 % of the model-based inflation is primarily defined by sectoral provide shocks (“sectoral provide shock”), whereas the change in households’ consumption patterns throughout sectors (“sectoral demand shock”) accounts for little or no. The underside line of this decomposition is that provide constraints magnified the affect of upper demand in inflation. Consequently, most sectors within the U.S.—fifty-eight out of sixty-six—have been supply-constrained. This result’s in keeping with different analysis that reveals that expansionary fiscal coverage has elevated the share of sectors labeled as supply-constrained.

The mannequin calibration reveals the quantitative significance of each demand and provide shocks

Chart: percent on y axis and four bars; x axis: model based inflation; backed out AD shock; sectoral demand shock; sectoral supply shock
Supply: di Giovanni, Kalemli-Özcan, Silva, and Yildirim (2022).
Notes: The chart presents a U.S. closed-economy inflation decomposition for a sixty-six sector financial system, 2019-21. The primary bar reveals model-based inflation contemplating all shocks (demand and provide). The second bar considers the mixture demand shift solely. The third bar makes use of sectoral demand shocks solely. Lastly, the fourth bar makes use of sectoral provide shocks solely.


The present debate on whether or not the Federal Reserve can engineer a gentle touchdown must disentangle the drivers of U.S. inflation. Our work reveals that inflation within the U.S. would have been 6 % as a substitute of 9 % on the finish of 2021 with out provide bottlenecks. Our quantitative outcomes make clear why some pundits have been incorrect to foretell a transitory surge in inflation, whereas others have been proper in predicting excessive inflation, however for the incorrect causes. Put in another way, fiscal stimulus and different combination demand elements wouldn’t have pushed inflation this excessive with out the pandemic-related provide constraints. Within the absence of any new power or different shock, it’s due to this fact potential that the continued easing of provide bottlenecks will trigger a considerable drop in inflation within the close to time period.

Photo: portrait of Julian Di Giovanni

Julian di Giovanni is the pinnacle of Local weather Threat Research within the Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York’s Analysis and Statistics Group.  

Tips on how to cite this publish:
Julian di Giovanni, “How A lot Did Provide Constraints Increase U.S. Inflation?,” Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York Liberty Road Economics, August 24, 2022,

The views expressed on this publish are these of the writer(s) and don’t essentially replicate the place of the Federal Reserve Financial institution of New York or the Federal Reserve System. Any errors or omissions are the duty of the writer(s).



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